Colea, R.J., K.D. Holl, C.L. Keene and R.A. Zahawi
Natural regeneration of large-seeded, late-successional trees in fragmented tropical landscapes can be strongly limited by a lack of seed dispersal resulting in the need for more intensive restoration approaches, such as enrichment planting, to include these species in future forests. Direct seeding may be an alternative low-cost approach to planting nursery-raised tree seedlings, but there is minimal information on its efficacy or when in the successional process this technique will be most successful. We tested directly seeding five native tree species into habitats representing passive and active restoration approaches: (1) recently abandoned pasture; (2) naturally establishing, young secondary forests; and (3) young, mixed-species (fast- growing N-fixers and commercially valuable species) tree plantations established to facilitate montane forest recovery in southern Costa Rica.
Forest Ecology and Management